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Posted Sun, 2007-01-14 20:00 by backend
Hamilton, Earl J.
Munro, John
Classic Reviews in Economic History
Earl J. Hamilton, American Treasure and the Price Revolution in Spain, 1501-1650. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1934. xii + 428 pp.
Review Essay by John Munro, Department of Economics, University of Toronto.
Hamilton and the Price Revolution: A Revindication of His Tarnished Reputation and of a Modified Quantity Theory
Hamilton and the Quantity Theory Explanation of Inflation
As Duke University's website for the "Earl J. Hamilton Papers on the Economic History of Spain, 1351-1830" so aptly states: Hamilton "helped to pioneer the field of quantitative economic history during a career that spanned 50 years."[1] Certainly his most important publication in this field is the 1934 monograph that is the subject of this "classic review." It provided the first set of concrete, reliable annual data on both the imports of gold and silver bullion from Spain's American colonies — principally from what is now Bolivia (Vice Royalty of Peru) and Mexico (New Spain) — from 1503 to 1660 (when bullion registration and thus the accounts cease); and on prices (including wages) in Spain (Old and New Castile, Andalusia, Valencia), for the 150 year period from 1501 to 1650.[2] His object was to validate the Quantity Theory of Money: in seeking to demonstrate that the influx of American silver was chiefly, if not entirely, responsible for the inflation of much of the Price Revolution era, from ca. 1520 to ca. 1650: but, principally only for the specific period of ca. 1540 to ca. 1600. Many economic historians (myself included, regrettably) have misunderstood Hamilton on this point, concerning both the origins and conclusion of the Price Revolution. Of course the Quantity Theory of Money, even in its more refined modern guise, is no longer a fashionable tool in economic history; and thus only a minority of us today espouse a basically monetary explanation for the European Price Revolution (ca. 1515/20-1650) — though no such explanation can be purely monetary.[3]
If inflations had been frequent in European economic history, from the twelfth century to the present, the Price Revolution was unique in the persistence and duration of inflation over a period of at least 130 years.[4] Furthermore, if commodity money — i.e., gold and especially silver specie — was not the sole monetary factor that explains the Price Revolution that commodity money certainly played a relatively much greater role than it did in the subsequent inflations (of much shorter duration) from the mid-eighteenth century to the present. The role of specie, and specifically Spanish-American silver, in "causing" the Price Revolution was a commonplace in Classical Economics and Hamilton cites Adam Smith's statement in The Wealth of Nations (p. 191) that "the discovery of abundant mines of America seems to have been the sole cause of this diminution in the value of silver in proportion to that of corn [grain]."[5]..  Read More

We may all have heard of the Facebook but I’m willing to bet not that much of us knows about this other Facebook in the Amazon that will probably alert more tourists where to head to next.

No, it’s not anything close to a networking site but it’s very much social just like its namesake.

A nightclub in the remote Amazon region was named Facebook by its 30-year old owner, Humbert Camacho. It’s actually pronounced as ‘Facey-Bookey’ in Brazilian Portuguese.

Camacho became very successful in his first venture into the club business in Bolivia. His club, Discoteca Insomnio, reportedly welcomes 1,200 partygoers each weekend. Originally, Camacho was planning to practice law but after he opened his first business and tasted success, he doesn’t look like he’s going to leave too soon — he’s planning to build the Facebook nightclub in Epitaciolândia, Brazil.

“So what we wanted to do was to build a nightclub with this concept, where people could come and share things with their friends, spend a cool night, sharing pictures, experiences and have fun”, he said.

Initially, they just want to have a very catchy name, something that people will surely talk about. Aside from that, the reason he chose the name is because of its concept of basically just sharing things, stories, friendships with other people.

On a more scientific note, there are plans to establish a science center in the very heart of the Amazon rainforest, disregarding the alert this could bring to untold numbers of local tribes.

This will reportedly serve as a scientific hub for scientists from universities and from the Royal Botanic Gardens. Besides, they are also counting on this to become a tourist spot.

Another advantage of this for the locals is the job opportunities this project can provide in its two years of construction in an isolated province in Brazil.

If the proposal for this USD 10 million-project is realized, this will be the very first research hub located inside the jungle.

According to reports, the site’s designer will be Marks Barfield Architects, the same company credited for the famous London Eye.

The tree houses have cozy bathrooms, queen beds, private balconies and living rooms, along with standard amenities like AC, mini-bar and TV.

Amazon Towers even have their very own auditorium, restaurant, boilers and gift shop in the reception complex.


Just got back from a vacation trip to the Amazon and was immensely satisfied during my stay at the Amazon Towers. This might very well be the biggest eco-friendly resort hotel in Amazon that is built atop trees northwest of Manaus, Brazil overlooking the Amazon River.

A posh hotel in Rio Negro has 268 treetop rooms, tree houses and suites that are situated up to 20 meters above the ground. Their simple accommodations are enjoined together through an 8-km wooden catwalk where you can see the jungle from a 30-feet high perspective. Actually, I’m thinking this may be the biggest tree top hotel ever.

I’m sure others will also enjoy and get refreshed in the Amazon rainforest area where hotel rooms are on treetops and tree houses are available to live close by the wildlife.

Their standard rooms have really nice views of the Amazon River complete with all the native animals and plants. Amenities include private bathroom, a balcony, AC, mini-bar and double beds. They also have three-roomed ones to accommodate families.

Well, the suites (where I stayed, btw) are very spacious and has a rustic but tidy feel to them. They have tropical decorations that complement the awesome view from your private balcony nicely. Suites have an added room feature of dining table.

Tree Houses are the ultimate accommodation there where you will have the opportunity to actually try living 35 feet above ground. From there, you can easily see the flowing river and the rich wildlife below. What’s more, they have the latest in eco-friendly living in place. I was impressed by the design and construction of their tree houses — they have been carved out of massive trees!

The tree houses have cozy bathrooms, queen beds, private balconies and living rooms, along with standard amenities like AC, mini-bar and TV.

Amazon Towers even have their very own auditorium, restaurant, boilers and gift shop in the reception complex.



For anyone looking to experience the Amazon rainforest without waking up in the middle of the night covered in leeches, southern Colombia‘s Amacayacu National Park offers the perfect mix of adventure and comfort.

Any jaunt to this southern Colombian jungle park will start in Leticia, the lazily paced capital of the Amazonas department. The streets are lined with palm trees, shops and cafes, where you can shop for pure cocoa chocolates and handicrafts, or while a way an afternoon sipping caipirinhas.

The park is 65 kms to the south of the city, and can be reached by a manic one-and-a-half hour speed-boat ride down the Amacayacu River. Situated in a large chunk of virgin rainforest, Amacayacu is brimming with wildlife and features plants that could kill you and others to bring you back.

A boardwalk makes strolling through the ancient forest easy, allowing you to concentrate on the squirrel monkeys and macaws above, while avoiding the more sinister creatures that crawl and slither.

Comfortable rooms with balconies overlooking the jungle can be booked through Aviatur. Houseboats complete with crew, accommodating up to eight people, can also be organized.

Twenty minutes up the river from Amacayacu sits the pristine community of Puerto Narino. In this tiny jungle settlement the Nututama Foundation works with local indigenous people to protect endangered species including turtles and the pink river dolphin. Clean but modest accommodation is available for those seeking a truly unique experience.

Avianca runs daily flights between Bogota and Leticia, and at under two hours, the jungle is closer than you think.

Amazon Ventures Gold Deals

Amazon Ventures Gold Deals – Gold Coins, Bullion News, Information and Pricing. Financial site dedicated to Gold, markets and investment ideas My buy and hold recommendation for this decade is physical Gold, the free market’s “real” money.
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February 2, 2012 – Frisco, Germany – (Kazor.com) -

National Envelope-Amazon Review on Springhill Envelope
3211 Internet Blvd.
Suite 200
Frisco, TX 75034
Tel: 972-731-1100
Fax: 972-731-1127



Personal  review on amazon products for sale on springhill gold A-2 envelope.

Actually, I was not expecting much from products I purchase online because of past experiences where the shipped items were not at all what they are advertised to be. Like the other set of envelopes I ordered from another brand last month which arrived quickly but were pretty much useless to me — every single one of them has a damage. That’s when I became conscious of getting the highest quality in everything (because money is involved).

When I ordered from Amazon.com this Springhill gold A-2 envelope and it arrived the other day, I immediately inspected it for any signs of damage but I was pleased that there’s none. What’s more, it really looks very classy and fits my purpose of using it in sending out invitations for an important event. I am almost certain that I will convey a great impression to the receiver because of the quality of the envelope I use.
I expected it to do good in laser and inkjet printing and it didn’t let me down. The ink does not smear and dries quite easily. I have even tried to do offset printing on it and it worked nicely!
The gold color looks great on the pearly white paper I used for the content.
Another good thing about this Springhill Gold envelope is that it is acid- and lignin-free. That means even if you print an image or a logo on it, it won’t readily fade. (Plus, the whole thing is made by NE OPCO Inc DBA National from recycled with 30% post-consumer fiber — a green factor which kinda makes you feel good when buying a product.)
Amazon.com has Springhill Gold A-2 Envelopes in stock pretty much everyday and they are perfect for business correspondence, announcements, invitations or even for personal use. If you need it for bulk use, each box contains 250 envelopes and the whole thing weighs 4 pounds.
Whether it is for business, marketing or personal use, this springhill envelope looks perfect for the part.

Beautiful color and good paper qualityDecember 5, 2011
Amazon Verified Purchase(What's this?)
This review is from: Springhill Vellum Bristol Gold 67# Cover 23"x35" 5 sheets/pkg (Office Product)
The color is a little darker than on the picture - more orange than yellow, but still beautiful. It has a thinner texture than water color paper. The delivery took a little longer than I expected, so make sure you order in advance.
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amazon gold ventures: Fake Email Scam Targeting Amazon Shoppers

Online shopping was at its peak during the holiday season and email scammers have been playing spoil sport for Amazon shoppers by sending out fake emails that confirm the payment and shipment of a HTC Evo 4G.
Hoax-Slayer has reported that gullible Amazon customers are being targeted through a fake email looks as if it has come from Amazon. The email reads as, "Track your package Thank you for shopping with us. We thought you'd like to know that we shipped this portion of your order separately to give you quicker service. You won't be charged any extra shipping fees, and the remainder of your order will follow as soon as those items become available."

The mail also offers tracking links, which if clicked upon takes the unsuspecting users to a legitimate looking site but would rather drop a BlackHole Exploit Kit onto the visitor's system. If the exploit kit is successfully deployed, the system would be infected with a variant of Cridex malware that is known to steal personal and financial information from the infected computer.
The mail may not startle customers who have indeed bought the product but, customers who haven't bought the phone would definitely be shocked and might be tempted to think that their credit card details have been stolen and are being misused.



Amazon Gold Ventures Limited | RedGage

This group of mines are located in the catchment area of work Marmajito underground mine. They are operating the mines Naranjos, La Picuda and Las Brisas. The first two exploit the seam. Marmajito in its lateral extension and the third operates the hearts of the Grain Córdoba. These mines are located in the hamlet Marmajito, south of town the municipality of Segovia.
Los Naranjos 931,183.64 1'273,730.24 630 550
La Picuda 932,187.87 1'273,114.64 591 500
Las Brisas 930,845.26 1'273,260.24 690 570
The areas granted by the company Frontino Gold Mines in their respective operation contract are:
Los Naranjos: 9 Ha 1281.83 m2
The Picuda: 4 HA 7214.6 m2
Las Brisas: 4 Ha 629.46 m2
These areas are bounded by the following coordinates.
1 931,173.71 1'273,700.46
2 931,411.94 1'273,827.48
3 931,422.51 1'274,039.10
4 931,092.60 1'274,126.60
1 932,051.43 1'273,191.47
2 932,152.57 1'273,298.64
3 932,404.37 1'273,110.56
4 932,287.72 1'273,000.00
1 930,607.24 1'273,363.31
2 930,814.27 1'273,375.04
3 930,869.35 1'273,219.11
4 930,670.89 1'273,143.91
Marmajito sector mines have operating agreement in effect with the Frontino Gold Mines Company, with a duration of three months, renewable. The areas are well located with respect to farm work today, the Naranjos except mine, which is advancing on a crusade to Córdoba intercepting the vein out of the area. The mine La Picuda has a fixed lower boundary which is already below the lowest level on the contract, are advances are also side that fall outside the allocated area.
Underground work in mines Marmajito sector, are aimed at exploration and exploitation of the grain Marmajito. Los Naranjos exploit their lateral extension westward and the mine's Beaked eastbound; two mines are connected to the main mine workings has 18 levels and the mining company currently operates "ASOMARMAJITO." The Las Brisas mine exploits the superficial vein of the mine Córdoba.

Springhill Amazon Bird Gold Pellets

Pine Valley - A Mountain Oasis

Nestled in a valley surrounded by rolling hills and towering peaks reaching 6,000 feet . . . rocky knolls amidst a river of trees that flow through the valley and greet the slopes of the adjacent mountains . . . an Eden amidst the dry, parched chaparral . . . an oasis dense with pines, manzanita and centuries old oak trees that once shaded only the Indians that inhabited the region: "El Valle de los Pinos", as this beautiful mountain valley was known before 1869, describes the abrupt change in scenery that only nature can explain. The surrounding desert terrain compliments the unique valley of over 1,200 acres where cedars and pines flourish amidst lush green meadows of sage and wild lilac. 

Early settlers of the region included the Cocopah and Coyote Indians and later the Machados family of Old Town who had come to California as pioneers in the late 18th century. For a number of years, Don Manuel Machado and his wife, Serafina Valdes operated a cattle grazing station and lived out of a Adobe house they had built. During the summer, thin and starved longhorn cattle were brought in to fatten up in the rich pastureland. 

In 1869, former Butterfield Stage coach driver, Captain William S. Emery and his wife settled in the area. Being Scotch-English pioneers from New England, the sound of Spanish words were unpleasant to their ears and, quickly, renamed "El Valle de los Pinos" to its literal translation of Pine Valley. Either way, the valley boasts one of t...

Welcome to Birds-4-You Aviarys Specializing in hand fed Macaws, Congo African Greys, Conures, and other rare parrots.

Welcome to Birds 4 You Aviary. We are a private parrot breeder specializing in hand raising and hand feeding parrots ranging from large Macaws, Congo African grays, and Amazons. To smaller parrots like Sun Conures, Indian Ringnecks , Quakers, and Parrotlets. We are located in Central Florida, just 10 miles north of the Tampa Bay Area in Trinity, FL. We are not open to the public on a daily basis but if you wish to see our birds please contact us and schedule a visit. What makes us different from other breeders is that we go the extra mile in hand taming our birds assuring that you will get the best possible bird available. Our staff has over 20 years experience in breeding and training large parrots. We do not sell birds to be show pieces or breeders. We wish for all our parrots to become a loving member of their adopting family. We make sure all our large birds are well socialized with both male and female humans as well as other birds of different sizes and species. In addition to hand feeding our birds we make sure each is allotted a specific amount of play time each day. Each parrot is weaned onto pretty bird gold pellets and gets a daily ration of fruits and vegetables to provide them with the proper nutrition that they require and deserve. 

Purchasing a parrot is a huge commitment. Some parrots like blue and gold macaws, and congo African greys can live in excess of 70 years with proper care and diet. All to often people jump into ownership head first withou...


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